“The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, the children are now working as if I did not exist.”- Maria Montessori
During student teaching especially at the high school level, one of the most frustrating things I encountered was students not transferring knowledge. For example I would teach the students about a sforzando or forte piano at a certain spot in the music and the students would perform it with no problem. The next time we would come to this in a different spot in the music or most of the students ignored it and did nothing. Sound familiar? I believe that dealing with this transfer of knowledge is an issue most music teachers deal with at some point. How can we get our students to transfer their learning from one situation to the next? While at the PMEA State Conference one of the sessions I attended was entitled “Getting Your Students to Perform the Sforzando Every Time.” This session was presented by Dr. Scott Meier, Associate Professor of Music Education at Mercyhurst College Pennsylvania. During his session Dr. Meier presented some great tips and resources for getting our students to transfer their knowledge and learning.
Things that Inhibit Transfer:
- The creation of subject based “compartments”. As music educators we need to try and combined all subjects together instead of putting each subject into a compartment.
- The tendency of learning to be situated.
- Transfer is inhibited when the creation of systems based on social behaviors are disguised as learning.
- We inhibit transfer when we teach groups of facts without striving for learning that is founded on principles.
- Telling students exactly what they have to do to receive and A. Instead we need to emphasize learning for learning sake and learning because you love what you are doing.
Things to Avoid:
- Mentioning rather than teaching. Transfer is more likely to occur when learning has become conceptual knowledge. Teach more about less!
- Avoid presenting learning that is considered to be essential basic knowledge in just one experience or situation. It is best to create multiple visits to a key concept in a variety of situations.
- Try not to only teach to the next concert, but instead, teach to the future success of independent musicians and critical thinkers.
- Negative transfer of learning is also possible and something that all educators want to avoid.
Tips for Transferring Knowledge:
- We must teach our students about transfer of knowledge/learning and why it is important. Without this step transfer of learning is almost impossible to achieve. Students must know what it is and its importance before it will ever take place. In order to do this we must give the behavior an identity and purpose.
- There must be a role model present who values and practices transfer. This role model should be us, the educator. Just as like anything in music that we want our students to accomplish we need to model the behavior.
- The students must be immersed in an environment(the classroom) that fosters and supports the idea of transferring knowledge.
- It helps if students are exposed to the outstanding transfer thinkers who have already mastered transfer and its resulting creative output.
- Students need to practice transfer. The simple act of recognizing transfer when it occurs in class should be rewarded and in some cases celebrated. We need to celebrate and reward each transfer experience we see taking place in our classrooms. It is important to find an age appropriate way to reward a students transfer of knowledge. This shows that transfer is an important skill and that you as the teacher value that skill.
- One reason certain concepts transfer more easily than others is because it is almost identical to something else the student already knows.
- Allow students to explore and learn on their own. We shouldn’t always just tell the students exactly what to do.
- Getting transfer of knowledge is very possible, but as with most things there is not one sure fire fix or solution.
- Most importantly we need to get the students out of the “what do I need to do to get an A” way of thinking. When students are thinking in this manner transfer of knowledge is never going to take place.
Resources for More Information:
- Transfer of Learning: Cognition, Instruction, and Reasoning by Robert Haskell
- Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
As I found during student teaching getting students to transfer knowledge can be a challenging process, but can save a lot of time and shows that students are truly grasping and understanding the concept. While the above tips deal with transfer of knowledge in general and not necessarily dealing with music, there are a lot of concepts that can still be used in the music classroom and ensemble. I hope you found the tips from Dr. Meier on how to successfully get your students to transfer knowledge helpful and also please share other ideas and resources of how you accomplish this in your classroom.